Twenty Years After: A Review Essay of Musicological Identities

Michael W. Morse
Twenty Years After: A Review Essay of Musicological Identities
Steven Baur, Raymond Knapp, and Jacqueline C. Warwick (eds)
Musicological Identities: Essays in Honor of Susan McClary
(Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009) (2)


It has been nearly twenty years since the publication of Susan McClary’s provocative Feminine Endings. The appearance of a festschrift, with contributions from her most reliable students and acolytes, presents a suitable occasion to rethink the contribution to musicology of McClary and her school. I believe, first of all, that we can speak straightforwardly of a ‘school’. There are a number of important orientations, principles if you will, that unite these authors in their diversity, marking them together ideologically, and apart methodologically from other versions of musicology; they form a major strand of the so-called New Musicology® (3). Historically, perhaps first among these principles were regular and fervent proclamations of ideological distance from (and hence disinterest in) ‘traditional’ musicology and its outmoded scholarly paradigms; such edicts often took the form of tabular lists of the virtues of ‘us’ and the flaws of ‘them’ (4). Musicology’s paradigm—the singular is deliberate—is considered methodologically superseded because it ignored social context in favour of a chimerical abstract called ‘the music itself’, and morally outdated because it espoused elitist canons of white male privilege, intellectually as well as musically. Continue reading

Carys Wyn Jones (2008) The Rock Canon

Carys Wyn Jones
The Rock Canon: Canonical Values in the Reception of Rock Albums

(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008)
Review by Maria Hanáček

The ongoing debate over the concept of a Western canon keeps various disciplines occupied and popular music studies certainly are no exemption. This academic debate is not the main frame of reference of this book, though. It is concerned with the emergence of canons – seemingly a high art concept – in popular culture and examines the extent to which canonical models from literature and classical music inform the reception of rock albums.

The study focuses on ten albums repeatedly appearing in “greatest albums” lists. The term “rock”, however, is applied very broadly here to “music defined primarily by albums”, thus this top ten includes not only the Beatles and the Rolling Stones but also Marvin Gaye and the Sex Pistols. (This definition appears quite plausible if one considers that “classical” concepts and values are most likely to be found in albums, which come close to the idea of a work of art. It seems a bit problematic, though, when later on an “ideology of rock” with narrower genre connotations is employed). Continue reading

Olivier Julien (2008) Sgt. Pepper and the Beatles

Olivier Julien (ed.)
Sgt. Pepper and the Beatles: It Was Forty Years Ago Today

(Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2008)
ISBN: 978-0-7546-6708-7 (Paperback)
ISBN: 978-0-7546-6249-5 (Hardback)
Review by Alison Notkin


The Beatles are a popular band. During their reign as the “Fab Four” in the 1960s they were a popular band, and thirty-eight years after their ten-year career ended, they are still a popular band. More books have been written about the Beatles than any other band, ever. They were the first band to “warrant” serious musicological writing, and in fact, are one of the only popular music groups to grace the pages of such auspicious publications as the Cambridge Music Handbooks (only the Beatles and George Gershwin have had this honour so far). Music-lovers I meet often tell me that the Beatles are by far the best band that ever existed, and certainly, I, who spent hours of my 1970s and 80s childhood, locked in my basement, listening to records and pretending to be John Lennon, cannot contest that statement. Come to think of it, it is because of the effect of this popularity that I am even here, writing this review that I jumped on once hearing what the topic of the book was. Continue reading

Fabian Holt (2007) Genre In Popular Music

Fabian Holt
Genre In Popular Music

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
Review by William Echard
(Carleton University)


As Holt glosses it: “this is a book about the work of genre categories in American popular music” (p. 1). In part the book is a theorization of genre as a site of cultural practice, and in part a series of case studies. Holt’s own goals relative to the existing literature are to “bring genre scholarship closer to musical practice and experience,” and also to understand music genres “in the totality of social space” (p. 7). He adopts the term genre culture “as a concept for the overall identity of the cultural formations in which a genre is constituted” (p. 19). And given the complexity of social space, Holt feels that “the best way to [study genre] is not to develop an all-encompassing master theory, [but rather to] employ multiple critical models, explore plural narratives, and develop ‘small theories’ in relation to particular musical and social realities in a series of individually designed case studies” (pp. 7-8). Continue reading

Bad Vibes

The hunt for the worst sound in the world

Fingernails scraping down a blackboard… the scream of a baby… your neighbour’s dog barking: what is the worst sound in the world? This is what this website has been trying to find out:
Vote for the worst sound

Acoustic science is concerned with the production, transmission, manipulation and reception of sound, from unwanted traffic noise to beautiful music. Acoustics is about both the physical properties of sound waves and the reaction of humans. This website is interested in the often complex ways in which people perceive and interpret sounds. The aim is to increase awareness of sound psychology by examining what makes a sound unpleasant to hear. Your votes on the site will also give us an insight into what is the worst sound in the world, and maybe why it is the worst sound.

The project is being led by Prof. Trevor Cox of Salford University’s Acoustic Research Centre.

Hearing Cultures (Review: Marina Peterson)

Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity
Veit Erlmann, ed
Oxford: Berg, 2004

The reader of Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity is met first with the image of an ear that graces the cover of the book.  This is not any ear.  Rather, it is an ear cast in white porcelain.  It is an ear without a body.  Where a head would be, there is, instead, a flat, oblong background of porcelain.  The white ear foremost evokes European classicism qua modernism.  Singular, abstracted, and decontextualized, the ear represents some of the dominant tropes of modernism.  The ear both points to “the modern” and reproduces “modernism.”  It is available to unpack as referencing modernity at the same time as it is itself a modern ear.  Sound, it suggests, contains both the peril and promise of modernity. 

The title develops the content of modernism.  That the emphasis is on “hearing” – or sound consumption rather than production – we know already from the ear.  “Cultures” in the plural raises the spectre of difference.  But what is the subject that hears?  And what does it hear?  The abstract ear implies a universalist difference, cultures as serial entities, or cultures as the Other/s of the modern ear.  Is this modern ear locatable as part of a European modernism that imbues and accompanies projects that range from imperialism to anthropology, colonialism to globalization?  Or are cultures hearing, such that listening marks cultural difference?

Erlmann’s introduction (chapter 1, “But What of the Ethnographic Ear? Anthropology, Sound, and the Senses”) provides answers to some of these questions, answers that are drawn on and problematized through the rest of the chapters.  Erlmann opens the Introduction with a question posed in Writing Culture, “’But what of the ethnographic ear?’” (1).  The quote serves as a prompt to call for a greater inclusion of non-visual sensory experience in ethnographic writing.  To this end, “’Hearing culture’ suggests that it is possible to conceptualize new ways of knowing a culture and of gaining deepened understanding of how the members of a society know each other” (3).  “Hearing culture,” as an explanation of the title Hearing Cultures, defines culture as entity; rather than “culture” coming into being through sound, “cultures” hear differently.  The cultures whose modes of hearing are investigated are ones that are (or were) undergoing modernization, addressing the question of “how listening has come to play a role in the way people in modernizing societies around the globe deal with themselves as subjects in embodied, sensory, and especially auditory ways” (5). 

The problem of difference haunts this collection, as the terms of a European modern are deployed to analyze a range of times and cultures.  Following the thrust of modern projects such as colonialism, anthropology, and psycho-analysis, sound allows for a discussion of an Other in relation to cultural difference, the repressed, and the senses.  Modernity has produced difference through both violence and nostalgia, legitimating ideological or physical force in the service of modernization and looking within the modern self or to an Other outside for an alternative to the rationalizing tenets of modernism.  The chapters, in addressing the Other body or culture, create a generative analytic tension as they either reproduce the categories of modernity or use the material as a means of critiquing modernist tenets. 

For Smith (chapter 2, “Listening to the Wild Blue Yonder”), difference is located in the past and the body.  “For the early modern men and women, hearing was a whole-body experience” (37).  Literature provides evidence of the aurality of reading practices and the sonic environment of the time.  This mode of investigation recuperates sound for the subject and the scholar, as it “recognizes the embodiedness of historical subjects and attends to the materiality of the evidence they have left behind at the same time it acknowledges the embodiedness of the investigator in the face of that evidence” (41).  Ultimately for Smith, sound is uniquely phenomenological, with the capability of giving new life to the modern body.

Gouk (chapter 5, “Raising Spirits and Restoring Souls: Early Modern Medical Explanations for Music’s Effects”) discusses the philosophic relationship between sound and the body in early modern medicine.  Medical treatises posited ways in which music could heal by physically affecting a person’s nervous and spiritual system.  Such practices reveal an ideology of music that asserted a direct correlation between music and the body; historicizing this relationship helps deromanticize it.

Connor (chapter 8, “Edison’s Teeth: Touching Hearing”) discusses the physicality of sound (where it is produced in and by the body), to explore a mimetic relationship between sound and touch (154).  The tongue touches the inside of the mouth and teeth can “hear” vibrations.  Engaging the embodied production of sound head on enables Connor to raise charges against some of the projections that are made onto sound; sound, Connor writes, is not so much an effect or marker of difference but “brings difference into the world” (162) as  “sound can come about only as a result of some more or less violent disturbance: the collision of objects with each other (we never hear the sound of one thing alone…)” (161). 

For Bull (chapter 9, “Thinking About Sound, Proximity, and Distance in Western Experience: The Case of Odysseus’s Walkman”), the person on the street with headphones in her ears uses her body to colonize the world around her.  A combination of Odysseus’ measure of controlling his relationship to the sound of the sirens and Fitzcarraldo’s blasting of opera into the Amazon, “Walkman users habitually aestheticize their daily experience through sound in order to transcend their geographical space and manage their sense of presence in the world” (189).  Thus Bull inscribes modernity on the Walkman user, positing that sound is instrumental for a modernist mode of being in the world.  Bull’s Walkman user points to the other Other of modernity, the Other outside the modern self: the explorer’s encounter, the colonial subject, or the anthropologist’s field site.

Carter (chapter 3, “Ambiguous Traces, Mishearing, and Auditory Space”) argues that an investigation of listening rather than hearing enables the recognition of possible gaps in sonic legibility across difference.  Such gaps might include misunderstandings between groups of people where difference is organized around spoken language as well as the transformation of an original sound through recording.  Focusing on listening, Carter argues, allows for the possibility of transformation as we dwell in the muddle of modernity.

The Runa, a Quechua-speaking group, are an ethnographic Other, who, Nuckolls (chapter 5, “Language and Nature in Sound Alignment”) argues, have a closer relationship to the environment through sound than we do.  Nuckolls’ discussion of their sound world allows for an understanding of a different ideology of sound in relation to culture, in which ideophones reflect “a complex of cultural constructions that link sound to sentiments of shared animacy with the nonhuman life-world” (82).  While such an investigation yields new ways of thinking about ways to analyze and explore sound, the approach is necessarily posited on a premodern/modern split that also reproduces these terms.  With the assertion that “the use of ideophones is diminishing as “traditional subsistence-based culture becomes increasingly dependent on market-economy activities” (82), sound becomes an additional marker in the geographic and temporal divide between the modern self and the ethnographic subject.

Kahn’s discussion (chapter 6, “Ether Ore: Mining Vibrations in American Modernist Music”) of the French-American composer and esoteric philosopher Dane Rudhyar describes how a Euro-American modernist musical tradition was used to incorporate sounds and musical ideologies from the “East.”  Rudhyar drew on Tantric cosmogony to develop a musical ideology and composition form that argued for an idea that all harmony emanates from a single vibration.  His Single Tone theory, however, ultimately supported a compositional form that was rooted in European art music traditions.  With a modernist project of appropriation as his case, Kahn is able to reflect on the nature of modernism without reproducing its categories in his analysis.  As the Single Tone theory suggests, modernism has the “the capacity to generate difference from…unity” (117).

Hirschkind’s (chapter 7, “Hearing Modernity: Egypt, Islam, and the Pious Ear”) modern is the Egyptian state, which utilized recorded sermons as part of its twentieth-century modernizing project.  Cassette sermons emerged as modes of contesting the state (144); a medium not controlled by the government, cassettes also reflect an alternate philosophy of listening found in writings of mystics.  Rather than the message coming from the recording with the ability to transform the listener, cassettes mark a return to an idea that “the rhetorical act is accomplished by the hearer and not the speaker” (134).  Sound, therefore, is mutable, able to be put to different uses with differing ideological foundations.

While Egypt had an internal modernizing project, the imperialist projects at the center of European modernism depended on and helped construct an uneven world of the West and the rest.  Thompson’s work (chapter 10, “Wiring the World: Acoustical Engineers and the Empire of Sound in the Motion Picture Industry, 1927-1930”) on American sound film engineers reveals a moment of cultural imperialism that bridged colonialism and globalization.  Installing sound technology around the world for talkie movies was construed in imperialist terms, reflected most blatantly in the language of an AT&T (the ERPI) newsletter that proclaimed, “’Africa Falls Under ERPI’s Advance’” (202).  Modernity itself was the aspiration, as, “American engineers (as well as filmmakers) saw the worldwide expansion of sound film as a broadcast enterprise – one in which American technologies, commodities, and culture would disseminate throughout the world, standardize it, and thereby make it modern” (192).  This project aspired for the creation of a modern ear, abstracted and universalized.  An ear represented by the image on the cover of the book. 

Whose ear is the modern ear?  And what of the ethnographic ear?  The focus of the collection, ultimately, is not of what the ethnographer hears as sound, but of an ethnographic ear for what is heard by the subject.  For most of the authors, their subject is historical, with listening practices, abilities, and experiences found in texts.  This approach yields a wealth of methodological insight into how sound can be unearthed and recuperated from existing documents.  How we might hear today ­– with an ethnographic ear that can experience sound and hear the sonic world of others – now stands as a challenge, one that can continue to provide insight into the ways in which sound is a mode of being in the world.


A new popular music research project in Finland

The Starnet. Changing Discourses of Popular Music Stardom. This research project deals with the relationship between the star phenomenon and popular music. The main questions of the project are: How is popular music stardom constructed at specific historical moments? What kind of meanings popular music stars incorporate? Stardom is characterised by different media-oriented public actions which form a web-like texture. The project calls this discursion the starnet. In order to understand traditions and changes in this discursion, as well as the triumph of stardom in the latter part of twentieth-century, the project produces three studies. Docent Kari Kallioniemi examines the democratization of eccentricism in British stardom and popular music. MA Kimi Kärki focuses on Anglo-American stage designing and the multifaceted relationship between “stadium rock stardom” and technology. Dr Janne Mäkelä explores how Finland’s quest for international popular music stardom in the late tw
entieth-century was connected to globalisation processes and national identity.

The project has funding from the Academy of Finland from August 2005 to December 2007.